The effect size seems as large for those with psychiatric disorders as those without.
The effect sizes are equal or larger than those of antidepressant treatment for mood and anxiety disorders.26 studies that assessed mental health with questionnaires designed to measure anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and stress were included. Follow-up mental health scores were measured between seven weeks and nine years after baseline. Anxiety, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, and stress significantly decreased between baseline and follow-up in quitters compared with continuing smokers.
To investigate change in mental health after smoking cessation compared with continuing to smoke.
Also the causal relationship between smoking and mental health is less clear cut. Although most smokers report wanting to quit, many continue as they report that smoking provides them with mental health benefits.
Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that regular smokers report smoking cigarettes to alleviate emotional problems and feelings of depression and anxiety, to stabilise mood, and for relaxation as well as relieving stress. This pattern of behaviour occurs in smokers with and without diagnosed mental disorders. Surprisingly, views about smoking predict whether or not people attempt to quit and whether or not they are successful.
Tobacco is the leading global cause of preventable death.
A smoking prevalence of 5% or lower, regarded by many experts as an endpoint to achieve, would be insufficient to end the epidemic.
Research shows that even if uptake of smoking entirely ceased, and cessation increased beyond any targets reached to date, there would still be several decades of high healthcare costs attributable to smoking. Without additional measures these costs and the preventable suffering they represent will extend even further into the future.